Anatomy Study

Anatomy study:

Anatomy study is a very important study in modelling. Thanks to it we can reproduce more accurate human characters then we can stylize them in the way we still keep them reasonable and believable.

Here are 8 muscles that I believe that they are important and affect human character modelling the most.

* The skeleton used in this task was originally created by Ryan Kingslien.

*Zbrush was used to sculpture the muscles for demonstration of the positions and shapes of them.

– Deltoid: is a thick and powerful muscle that forms the rounded contour of the shoulder. Its main function is responsible for the abduction of the arm (McKinley & O’Loughlin 2012, p.360).

– Triceps brachii: is the large muscle on the back of the upper arm. It is primarily responsible for the extension of forearm. The long head of triceps is also responsible to extends and adducts the arm (McKinley & O’Loughlin 2012, p.365).

– Biceps brachii: is a two-headed muscle that lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow. Its function is primarily to flex the forearm and powerfully supinate the forearm when the elbow is flexed (McKinley & O’Loughlin 2012, p.367).

– Gastrocnemius: is often referred to as the “calf”. it is a very powerful muscle located at the back of the lower leg. It is involved in many movement of the body such as standing, running and jumping. It flexes the leg and plantar flexes the foot. It spans both the knee and the ankle joints (McKinley & O’Loughlin 2012, p.386).

– Sternocleidomastoid: It is a paired thick muscle in the superficial layers of the anterior portion of the neck. It extends from the sternum and clavicle to the mastoid process posterior to the ear. Its function is to flex and rotate the head (McKinley & O’Loughlin 2012, p.337).

– Pectoralis major: is a thick, fan-shaped muscle, located at the chest. It covers the superior part of the thorax. It is the prime mover of the arm flexion. It also adducts and medially rotates the arm (McKinley & O’Loughlin 2012, p.360).

– Rectus abdominus: is also known as the “six pack”. It is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human abdomen. It is an important postural muscle. Is main responsibility is to flex vertebral column and compresses abdominal wall (McKinley & O’Loughlin 2012, p.347). It also helps in keeping the internal organs intact and creating intra-abdominal pressure as when doing exercising or lifting heavy weights.

– Rectus femoris: is one of the four quadriceps muscles of the human body. All of the muscles attach to the patella (knee cap) via the quadriceps tendon. It is situated in the middle of the front of the thigh. It is responsible to extend the leg and flexes thigh (McKinley & O’Loughlin 2012, p.385).

Differences between male and female in anatomy:

Based on what we mentioned briefly above, we can easily recognize the difference between male and female in terms of muscles is in pectoralis major muscle. It makes up the bulk of the chest muscles in the male and lies under the breast in the female.

Additionally, we can see the differences between male and female in general shape and size of their skulls. Typical female features are delicate and small, while mal features tend to be larger, sturdier and bulkier (McKinley & O’Loughlin 2012, p.201).

Although we can determine the sex of a skeleton by examining the skull, the most reliable indicator is the pelvis, mainly the ossa coxae. They are the most sexually dimorphic bones of the body due to the requirements of pregnancy and childbirth in female. That’s why the female pelvis is shallower and wider than the male pelvis and the males have narrower hips then the females do (McKinley & O’Loughlin 2012, p.233).

Reference:

McKinley, M & O’Loughlin, VD 2012, Human anatomy, 3rd edn, McGraw-Hill, New York.

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Imaginary character

The original character:

The character with exaggerated muscles:


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